Absolute accuracy
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The stated figure refers to the absolute deviation of the DVM, or of the monitors of the analogue programming. They are independent of the stability data of the individual series.



For all families with standard data the following absolute accuracy values apply:

for all nominal voltages: < ± 0,2% of the nominal value
for all nominal currents:
within the range > 5 mA up to < 200 A: < ± 0,2% of the nominal value
without this range: < ± 0,5% of the nominal value
additional error of the DVM: < ± 2 Digits
Active pull-down control
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Available on demand especially for the NLN series: Power transistors parallel to the output acting as a current sink.

Ambient temperature
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All data in our catalogue are valid for an ambient temperature range of 0 - 40°C. This is the standard temperature range. Other environment temperature on request.

Analogue programming
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The standard analogue programming allows an adjustment of voltage and current by an external DC voltage of 0 - 10 V, as well as the read-out of the actual values on monitor terminals (normalized to 0 - 10 V) - see also Description of analogue programming.

Analogue programming, floating
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Function as analogue prorgramming, but isolated from the power supply up to 2 kV DC - see also Description of floating analogue programming.

Autoranging power supply
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Power supply with automatically ranging of the operating point without steps. Within a fixed power limitation the the operating characteristic of the power supply is extended to both the sides of higher voltage and higher current.

Bipolar power supply
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A bipolar power supply can be adjusted from positive output voltage and current to negative with continuous zero crossing. All bipolar power supply units of FuG Elektronik GmbH are designed for restricted 4-quadrant operation. The electrical power, produced by the power supply, can be consumed again with some time-shift .On request the units can be equipped with full 4-quadrant capability.

CE mark
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All FuG power supplies have a CE label - a guarantee of compliance with the current EMC and safety standards:

Certificate of calibration
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All FuG power supplies can be calibrated at the factory. The certificate of calibration, which can be given to the customer on request, confirms the compliance of the output data with the catalogue data e.g.:

Certificate of calibration
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All FuG power supplies can be calibrated at the factory. The certificate of calibration, which can be given to the customer on request, confirms the compliance of the output data with the catalogue data e.g.:

- Indication on the DVM
- Monitor voltages*)
- Computer output data*)
- Reference voltage*)
- Linear coherence between control voltage and output value*)

*) Options

Charging current
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FuG capacitor charging power supplies operate with constant current. It is adjustable to every value up to the nominal value. On request units available with enhanced charging current at low voltage.

Charging power
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Power specification for capacitor charging power supplies. The data is in J/s, and is valid for charging from "0" to the nominal voltage. For charging of a partially discharged capacitor a considerably higher charging power, up to the doubles, can be supplied.

Chopper controlled
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see Switch mode power supply.

Current control
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Standard power supplies can be operated in constant voltage or constant current mode. The switchover occurs automatically with a sharp transition.

Current limitation
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When a power supply operates with constant voltage, the current potentiometer can be used for setting the current limit value.

Deviation (Stability data)
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This term assumes the following data which are always refer to the nominal value and are valid for constant operating conditions. Constant conditions means that, in each case, all other conditions such as the load, ambient temperature and mains voltage are constant:

a) Deviation of the output voltage (or output current when specified) for ±10% variation of the line voltage.
b) Deviation of the output voltage (or output current when specified) over a period of 8 hours, after an appropriate warm up time.
c) Deviation of the output voltage at load changes from full load to no load.

DIN EN ISO 9001
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Since 1994 FuG has maintained this quality assurance system. All supplied units are tested (using calibrated measuring instruments) and the results recorded in our test department, so as to ensure that all units shipped are fully in accordance with their specification.

Discharge time constant
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This data always relates to the unconnected output. It is the time which the output voltage has to decay to approx. 37% of the adjusted voltage after the output has been switched off.

Double stabilized power supply
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Such units are equipped with a linear transistor regulator and a thyristor pre-stabilization. So the high efficiency of the thyristor controller is combined with the good regulation characteristics of a linear regulator.

Dumpswitch
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Fast discharge switch for the controlled discharging of internal and external capacitors. (see also Interlock)

Efficiency
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We state no defined values for efficiency since it depends upon the operating point of the power supply. For typical efficiencies see table beneath.

Electronic load
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Unit, which has the behavior of a adjustable load resistor. Usually it is used for testing power supplies. Depending on the design, there can be adjusted and stabilized the resistance, the consummated power the or consummated current.

EMC:
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Electro Magnetic Compatibility - for standards see CE mark.
EN61000-6-1 and EN61000-6-3 (single-phase mains connection)
EN61000-6-2 and EN61000-6-4 (two- and three-phase mains connection)
Safety: EN61010-1

EURO-size
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19" cassette system cases, 3 HU

Fast de-energizing
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Option for super conductor supplies for controlled de-energizing of super conducting coils/magnets at quench.

Final charging voltage
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Preset voltage for capacitor charging power supplies up to which the capacitor shall be charged.

Floating output
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So indicated terminals have no DC connection to other parts of the unit or to ground. The respective permissible potential difference (isolation voltage) is indicated.

IMS-size
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Older size of plug-in cases, 4 HU

Interlock
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Loop for safety switching off when disconnected. Mains disconnection, but without forced discharging of the output or load. (see also Dumpswitch)

Light flux regulation
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Lamp ballast units can have optionally a terminal for the connection of a photo-sensor to control the intensity of the lamp.

Linear regulation
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Control of energy flow by one or more of bipolar or field effect transistors. The transistors are operated with the linear part of its characteristic and switched in series to the load.

Mains connection
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Stated is the mains voltage, the permissible tolerance (±10%), the line frequency range and the type of mains connection, e.g. single phase, two-phase or three-phase. The conductors for N (neutral) and PE (protective earth) are always necessary.

Mains Fuses
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The mains fuse for a power supply shall be the next bigger value to the built in input fuse. Required mains fuses for power supplies with two or three phase mains input see table below. For power supplies with one phase input usually a 16A fuse will be good.

Nominal current
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Maximum available current.

Nominal power
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Maximum available power from the power supply. No higher power is available - even for a short time. For FuG power supplies the first number in the type name is the power class or the main component of the the power supply. This value is approximately (but may be not exactly) the nominal power.

Nominal voltage
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Maximum adjustable voltage. For FuG power supplies the second number in the type name is usually the nominal voltage of the power supply.

Output isolation
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On units where the "0V" terminal is not firmly connected to earth (or may be optionally disconnected from earth), it is always shown up to which maximum voltage the terminal may be allowed to float with respect to earth. For units with floating output (all low and medium voltage power supplies up to 2kV - except cassettes) this value is valid for either of the output terminals.

Polarity reversal
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For HV power supplies a polarity reversal switch is available as an option. For further information see options.

Power limitation
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The output power of autoranging power supplies is limited to a fixed value. All other supply series can be operated at both nominal voltage and nominal current simultaneously.

Power control
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Adjustable regulation of output power see options.

PROBUS
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FuG name for our system of computer interfaces.

PWM-Regulator
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Regulator with Puls Width Modulation. Such regulators are used in switch mode power supplies and in drives.

Quench
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The transition of a super conducting coil / magnet from super conducting to normally conducting condition. If no special measures are provided, the energy, stored in the magnetic field, will be transformed into thermal energy within a short time when this happens.

Quench detector
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FuG name for our system of computer interfaces.

Rack-adapter
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Accessories to mount table-top units into a 19" rack. (see also accessories)

Recovery time
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This characteristic is stated independently for voltage and current:
For voltage control, it is the time which the power supply requires to return to the adjusted voltage after a load variation from 10% to 100%, or from 100% to 10%.
For current control, it is the time which the power supply requires to return to the adjusted current after a load variation where the output voltage does not change by more than 10% of the nominal voltage.

Regulations and standards
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The design and production of our power supplies is in accordance with the latest standards for EMC and safety. See also CE mark.

Repetition frequency
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This frequency corresponds to the repetitive charge and discharge of a capacitor by a capacitor charging power supply.

Reproducibility
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Repeatability of setting of a desired output value under constant conditions - it is always referred to the nominal value of the supply.

Residual Ripple
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If not otherwise stated the residual voltage ripple is the referred-to parameter. It is always referred to the nominal value independent of the set value. The frequency of the ripple is the frequency of the mains rectifier and its harmonics. For chopper controlled units there is also a component with the switching frequency (usually 20kHz/40 kHz). For capacitor charging power supplies the value of the charging current is the referred-to parameter.

RMS
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The energetically equivalent DC value (also effective value) to an alternating voltage. It corresponds to the square root of the integral of squares ( Root Mean Square). At a purely sinusoidal voltage the rms value corresponds to about 36% (1/(2 xv2)) of the value "peak-to-peak". At a pulse range consisting of narrow peaks (what is the case for the residual ripple of a switched mode power supply) the difference can be considerably larger.

Safety
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See under CE mark.

Sense terminals
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For low voltage power supplies, sense lines can be connected to these terminals to measure the voltage immediately at the load and by this to compensate for any voltage drop on the load-lines. The nominal output voltage always refers to the actual output terminals and does not take account of any voltage voltage drop on the load-lines. The compensation of the voltage drop on the load-lines is restricted to a maximum of 5% of the nominal voltage (minimum of 1V) and has to be considered when choosing a supply.

Setting resolution
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Smallest possible steps for the adjustment of voltage or current - always referred to the nominal value.

Setting time
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The time required before the output value of a power supply reaches the set value

Stability
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See deviation.

Standards
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The design and production of our power supplies is in accordance with the latest standards for EMC and safety. See also CE.

Switch mode power supply
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Power supply where the transmission of energy is performed by high frequently alternating voltage.

Temperature coefficient (TC)
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In addition to the value for long-term stability (see deviation), we also refer to the 'drift' of an output value as a function of the variation in the ambient temperature whilst the supply is operating under otherwise constant conditions. The data is specified as 'per Kelvin' and is only valid within the stated operating temperature range. The TC is always referred to the nominal value. When the option "higher stability" is integrated, then the TC figure improves.

Temperature range
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See Ambient temperature

Thyristor regulation
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Control of energy flow by a phase cutting circuit with thyristors, operating at the frequency of the mains input.

Trigger input
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Capacitor charging power supplies have a potential-free input (opto-coupler) for the control of the charging cycle.

Unipolar power supply
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Units with only one polarity and with no regulation through zero.

Voltage control
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Standard power supplies can be operated in constant voltage or constant current modes. The switch-over occurs automatically with a sharp transition.

Warm-up time
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Stability data is only valid after a warm-up time of min. 30 minutes.

2-quadrant operation
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The unit operates as a current source and also as current sink (electronic load) with only one polarity of the output voltage. (see active pull-down control)

4-quadrant operation
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The unit operates as a current source and also as current sink (electronic load) with both polarities of the output voltage. (see also bipolar power supply)

Typical Efficiency and required mains fuses for power supplies with two - and three phase mains:
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Series Power Class Voltage Range Efficiency Mains Fuses
NTN 4200W 6,5V to 20V typ. 70-80% 25A
NTN 4200W 35V to 350V typ. 90% 25A
NTN 7000W 6,5V to 20V typ. 70-80% 25A
NTN 7000W 35V to 350V typ. 90% 25A
NTN 10500W 6,5V to 20V typ. 70-80% 32A
NTN 10500W 35V to 350V typ. 90% 32A
NTN 14000W 6,5V bis 20V typ. 70-80% 32A
NTN 14000W 35V to 350V typ. 90% 32A
NTN 21000W 6,5V bis 20V typ. 70-80% 50A
NTN 21000W 35V bis 350V typ. 90% 63A
NTN 28000W 6,5V bis 20V typ. 70-80% 80A
NTN 28000W 35V bis 350V typ. 90% 100A
NTN 35000W 6,5V bis 20V typ. 70-80% 80A
NTN 35000W 35V bis 350V typ. 90% 80A
NTN 50000W 6,5V bis 20V typ. 70-80% 160A
NTN 50000W 35V bis 350V typ. 90% 160A
NYN / MYN / HYN 7000W all typ. 86-93% 20A
NYN / MYN / HYN 10500W all typ. 86-93% 25A
NYN / MYN / HYN 14000W all typ. 86-93% 50A
NYN / MYN / HYN 21000W all typ. 86-93% 50A
NYN / MYN / HYN 28000W all typ. 86-93% 63A
NYN / MYN / HYN 35000W all typ. 86-93% 80A
NYN / MYN / HYN 50000W all typ. 86-93% 100A
NYN / MYN / HYN 70000W all typ. 86-93% 160A
NYN / MYN / HYN 100000W all typ. 86-93% 200A
MCA 3000W all 10A
MCP 2800W all 6A
MCP 4200W all 10A
HCP 2800W all 6A
HCP 4200W all 10A
HCH 10000W all 32A
HCH 15000W all 50A
HCH 20000W all 63A
HCH 30000W all 100A
HCH 40000W all 125A
HCH 50000W all 160A
HCK 1600W all 10A
HCK 2500W all 16A
HCK 5000W all 32A
HCK 10000W all 63A
HCK 20000W all 125A